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In recent years several antibodies against citrullinated peptides (ACPAs) have been identified in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their pathogenic, diagnostic and prognostic significance is under intense investigation. Among ACPAs, those targeting citrullinated alpha enolase (anti-CEP1) have been identified in RA but data about their ability to predict the development of erosive disease are conflicting. Furthermore, no data are currently available concerning their possible association with extra-articular manifestations (EAMs) in RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and significance of anti-CEP1 from a prognostic point of view. In this pilot study we confirmed that anti-CEP1 Abs are associated with higher prevalence of bone erosions, but we also provided the first evidence of an association between anti-CEP1 Abs and RA interstitial lung disease (ILD). These results provide the basis to investigate the association between anti-CEP1 Abs and EAMs in larger cohorts of RA patients to possibly confirm its role as biomarker for RA-ILD.
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